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Playlist: Assorted Stuff

Compiled By: Jeff Conner

 Credit:
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Reel Discovery (Series)

Produced by Kristin Dreyer Kramer

Most recent piece in this series:

Reel Discovery: Dolittle

From Kristin Dreyer Kramer | Part of the Reel Discovery series | 03:00

Dolittle_small Each week on Reel Discovery, host Kristin Dreyer Kramer takes a quick look at the latest in movies -- from the hottest new blockbusters to little-known indies and even Blu-ray releases. Whether you prefer explosive action movies or quiet dramas, you're sure to discover something worth watching. On the latest show, Kristin talks to the animals with Robert Downey, Jr. in Dolittle.

To read the full review, visit NightsAndWeekends.com.

Groks Science Radio Show (Series)

Produced by Charles Lee

Most recent piece in this series:

Transcendence -- Groks Science Show 2020-01-22

From Charles Lee | Part of the Groks Science Radio Show series | 22:04

Grokscience_small The success of humans as a species is often attributed to the profound increase in brain size.  However, does culture have a more important role?  On this episode, Gaia Vince discussed her new book, Transcendence.

Travelers In The Night (Series)

Produced by Al Grauer

Most recent piece in this series:

574-Record Year

From Al Grauer | Part of the Travelers In The Night series | 02:00

Playing
574-Record Year
From
Al Grauer

Smnasa-asteroids-vega_small In 2019, asteroid hunters set a new record by discovering 2,433 Earth approaching objects including 85 which could potentially become a threat to planet Earth. Fortunately, none of these 2,433 nearby celestial neighbors, having an average diameter of 300 feet, is on a collision course with humanity.

Celtic Connections (Series)

Produced by WSIU

Most recent piece in this series:

The Best of Celtic Connections 1952

From WSIU | Part of the Celtic Connections series | 58:29

Celticconnections_small

Brian Kelso Crow first visited Ireland 40 years ago and first experienced live performances by many legendary Celtic musicians. As we remember the life of Brian Kelso Crow we come full circle to the time that was such a great influence on him as he shares excerpts from his travel journal and the experiences that ultimately resulted in 25 years of Celtic Connections.

Celtic Connections offers radio listeners a wide variety of traditional and contemporary music associated with the western European lands occupied at one time or another by people of the Celtic tribes and their descendants, including Ireland, Scotland, the Isle of Man, Wales, Cornwall, Brittany, and Galicia, as well as Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, and other parts of North America where the Celtic influence has been felt.

Blank on Blank (Series)

Produced by Blank on Blank

Most recent piece in this series:

Alvin Toffler and Margaret Mead: Future Shock, Innocence and Innovation

From Blank on Blank | Part of the Blank on Blank series | 16:07

Theexperimenterslogo_social_chalkboardgreen_small Alvin Toffler and Margaret Mead: an author and an anthropologist who endeavored to understand the impact of scientific invention. In this episode of our series, The Experimenters, we hear from two visionaries who believed that while we’ve started a technological revolution, we don’t quite know where it’s going to take us. But maybe most interesting of all – we get to hearing these archival interviews from the very future these thinkers were trying to imagine. Mead and Toffler guide us into a view of what the present might have been — or perhaps in some ways actually came to pass.

Science Update (Series)

Produced by Science Update

Most recent piece in this series:

Giraffe Spot Inheritance

From Science Update | Part of the Science Update series | 01:00

Sciupdate_sm2_small Scientists discover that giraffes inherit their spots.

Xpressions (Series)

Produced by Don Hill

Most recent piece in this series:

Ping

From Don Hill | Part of the Xpressions series | 01:44

Playing
Ping
From
Don Hill

Prx_photo_xpressions_update_small XPRESSIONS is a cheap & cheerful 'drop in' interstitial. Makes a great daily or weekend feature! Pieces are added weekly. And if you'd like the whole series --all 318 items -- just ping me!  

Authentic South (Series)

Produced by Tanner Latham

Most recent piece in this series:

Resurrecting Slave Cabins at Montpelier (7:00 version)

From Tanner Latham | Part of the Authentic South series | 07:12

Cabin6_small

This episode of Authentic South begins over 200 years ago. In the late 1700s, there was a famous French general named La Fayette. (Lafee-ette) He was a champion of the American cause during our Revolution, and he actually fought under George Washington. He became a national hero here. And after the war, he traveled around our country and was showered with praise.

 

Streets were named in his honor. Monuments that still stand in town squares were erected to him. Cities were named after him, including, interestingly, Fayetteville, North Carolina.

 

This guy was a big deal.  

 

And during one of his trips in 1825, La Fayette visited James and Dolley Madison at their home Montpelier in Virginia. And the French general wrote that one of the most interesting sights he witnessed in America was the log cabin there of a woman named Granny Millie. She was a slave who was 104 years old at the time, and she lived with her daughter and granddaughter. We know that when La Fayette met her, she showed him her only treasure, an old worn copy of the ancient book Telemachus.

 

For years, at historic plantation sites across the South, the focus was on the big house and not on the slave cabins such as Granny Millie’s. But as contributor Kelley Libby tells us, cabins like that are being resurrected on the grounds of Montpelier.

 

Kelley Libby is an associate producer for a program called With Good Reason, produced by the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities. That’s where this story first aired. For more information on the Slave Dwelling Project, visit slavedwellingproject.org.

 

As always, the Authentic South theme is by Chris Hoke and Brett Estep.

 

And to see pictures of the cabins and to hear other episodes of the show, click on over to AuthenticSouth.com. You can also find us on iTunes and Stitcher Radio and SoundCloud. We are part of the Public Radio Exchange (prx.org) and we’ve got our own page at WFAE.org.

 

Until we go South again, thanks for listening.  

CurrentCast (Series)

Produced by ChavoBart Digital Media

Most recent piece in this series:

CurrentCast programming for January 6 - January 31, 2020

From ChavoBart Digital Media | Part of the CurrentCast series | 20:00

Cc_square_logo_240_small CurrentCast is a daily, 60-second radio feature that educates the public about water issues, promotes an appreciation for aquatic environments, and encourages an educated discussion about this critical resource. This 4-week round includes the following pieces:

Air Date - Title

Mon., 1/6 - iTree Hydro: A new tool can help city and regional planners see the benefits of planting trees

Tue., 1/7 - Fish Talk: Scientists listen in on a world of underwater sound.

Wed., 1/8 - Stormwater Fountain: A fountain in Milwaukee provides beauty and cleaner water.

Thu., 1/9 - What Goes In Must Come Out: Drinking wastewater… it’s not as far-fetched as you might think.

Fri., 1/10 - Too Little Phosphorus: In some areas, invasive mussels are removing too much phosphorus from the water.

Mon., 1/13 - A Salamander Hell-bent on Clean Water: Hellbender salamander populations are declining because of poor water quality. 

Tues., 1/14 - Less is More…When it Comes to Runoff: Cities are using green infrastructure to meet EPA clean water standards.

Wed., 1/15 - Urban Rivers Floating Islands: Floating gardens in the Chicago River provide new habitat for wildlife.

Thu., 1/16 - Trees as Stormwater Managers: The link between trees and clean water.

Fri., 1/17 - Bioacoustics in the Great Lakes: By recording underwater sounds in the Great Lakes, researchers can learn more about fish habits and distribution.

Mon., 1/20 - The Tale of the Lackawanna River: A community’s perception of their river had to be changed before they believed it was worth the effort to clean it up.

Tue., 1/21 - An Iconic Waterway: The Erie Canal introduced a new path to the west by connecting Albany to Buffalo.

Wed., 1/22 - Protecting a Stream’s Comfort Zone: Using a three-zone buffer system around a stream can dramatically improve water quality.

Thu., 1/23 - Too Much and Not Enough Water: Climate change is expected to deal multiple blows to water resources in New York.  

Fri., 1/24 - A Super Highway for Aquatic Invaders: The system of locks and canals that allowed ships to bypass Niagara Falls suddenly created a path for invasive species.

Mon., 1/27 - Lake trout stocking: Overfishing and predatory sea lampreys almost wiped out lake trout in the Great Lakes, but after years of stocking, lake trout are reproducing and are self-sustaining in Lake Superior.

Tue., 1/28 - Milwaukee War Memorial: The parking lot for the Memorial is getting a green facelift.           

Wed., 1/29 - Why migrating birds might backtrack (at least a little): When birds that migrate at night find themselves over water when the sun comes up, they head for the nearest shoreline – even if it means backtracking.

Thu., 1/30 - Are you rain ready? An online tool helps homeowners estimate, and reduce, their flood risk.

 

Fri., 1/31 - A conservation effort that’s all it’s quacked up to be: A group of organizations are helping one landowner revert some of his property back to its former state.

American Routes (Series)

Produced by American Routes

Most recent piece in this series:

Footlight Parade: Sounds of the American Musical (Series)

Produced by Footlight Parade

Most recent piece in this series:

Footlight Parade: 1999 on Stage (FP19:31)

From Footlight Parade | Part of the Footlight Parade: Sounds of the American Musical series | 57:43

Fp1931_small 10 productions from the year ranging from the revival of Rodgers and Hart's "Babes in Arms" to the explosive rock musical "Hedwig and the Angry Inch," and including "Parade" and the Tony Award-winning "Fosse."

BITS: THE ART OF COMMUNICATION (Series)

Produced by Halli Casser-Jayne

Most recent piece in this series:

BITS: RICHARD ARMOUR

From Halli Casser-Jayne | Part of the BITS: THE ART OF COMMUNICATION series | :55

Bitdotcom_small

What is BITS? We start with the varied definitions of bit. A bit can be a small portion, degree, or amount such as a bit of lint; a bit of luck. On the other hand a bit can be a brief amount of time, a moment as in Wait a bit. Or how about a short scene or episode in a theatrical performance? Or a bit part? Keeping with our theatrical theme, a bit can be an entertainment routine given regularly by a performer; an act. Let’s take our definition of bit further. A bit can be the sharp part of a tool, such as the cutting edge of a knife or ax or a particular kind of action, situation, or behavior as in I got tired of the macho bit. How about a matter being considered as in What's this bit about inflation? The Brits consider a bit a small coin: a three penny bit. BITS for our purposes are an amalgamation of all and is about our bit to contribute and share by bringing you a bit of knowledge as information and entertainment, and as a matter to be considered. So have a listen to our brief, daily dose of BITS where a little knowledge goes a long way brought to you by the artist of communication Halli Casser-Jayne, host of The Halli Casser-Jayne Show, Talk Radio for Fine Minds. For more information visit bit.ly/YEswYS.

The Audubon Moment (Series)

Produced by John Nelson

Most recent piece in this series:

The Crested Caracara

From John Nelson | Part of the The Audubon Moment series | 01:00

Roseate_spoonbill_flight_small

The Audubon Moment is a series dedicated to helping listeners in your radio market identify the birds that can be found in their own back yard or local environment. Over 100 segments have been produced for this series with is funded through a grant from Toyota Together Green by Audubon.

With over 47 million American's identifying themselves as birders, this series could be a valuable tool in bringing in new members to your public radio listening audience.

Vinyl Cafe (Series)

Produced by Vinyl Cafe

Most recent piece in this series:

The Vinyl Cafe February 14th, 2016, "Break Up Songs"

From Vinyl Cafe | Part of the Vinyl Cafe series | 54:01

Stuart-smiling_small It’s break-up music on the show today.

Gems of Bluegrass (Series)

Produced by Philip Nusbaum

Most recent piece in this series:

Another Look at Evolving With Body and Soul

From Philip Nusbaum | Part of the Gems of Bluegrass series | 06:44

Phil_w_zeitfunk_small Bluegrass music is in a constant state of evolution. Bluegrass artists are drawn to the catalog of songs by the Father of Bluegrass music, Bill Monroe. One of the popular songs from the Monroe canon, is With Body and Soul.

PRX Remix Select (Series)

Produced by PRX Remix

Most recent piece in this series:

Remix Select: Episode 455, 1/22/2020

From PRX Remix | Part of the PRX Remix Select series | 59:00

Prx_remix_logo_square-2c_small

  • PRX Remix Tell Us Stories
    Ray Pang & Miami Nights by Kevin MacLeod
    00:00:57
  • Redesigning Justice
    Life of the Law
    00:11:48
  • Mandela Part 4: State of Emergency (1976-1990)
    Radio Diaries
    00:12:46
  • Damian The Truck Driver
    Ray Pang & Sunbirds by BOcrew
    00:00:29
  • Meet Jason
    AlySeth
    00:02:37
  • PRX Remix We Tell Ourselves Stories In Order To Live
    Ray Pang & Loopster by Kevin MacLeod
    00:00:33
  • Sleater Kinney - The Future is Here
    Song Exploder
    00:18:19
  • Secret Staircases
    99 Percent Invisible
    00:10:59
  • Impress Of
    MelonFlex
    00:00:16
  • Linker
    Flim
    00:00:54
  • Remix Sonic ID
    Remix
    00:00:06

Says You! Full Hour Show (Series)

Produced by Says You!

Most recent piece in this series:

SY-2405: Says You! 2405 from Concord MA, 1/24/2020

From Says You! | Part of the Says You! Full Hour Show series | 50:59

Says-you-2013_medium_small Says You! 2405 from Concord MA with Dave Zobel

Shelf Discovery (Series)

Produced by Kristin Dreyer Kramer

Most recent piece in this series:

Shelf Discovery: The Hand on the Wall by Maureen Johnson

From Kristin Dreyer Kramer | Part of the Shelf Discovery series | 03:00

Thehandonthewall_small Each week on Shelf Discovery, host Kristin Dreyer Kamer offers listeners a brief look inside the pages of a new book. From mysteries to memoirs, classics to chick lit, busy readers are sure to find plenty of picks to add to their shelves. On this week's show, Kristin closes in on a pair of killers from different decades with a teen sleuth in The Hand on the Wall, the final book in author Maureen Johnson’s Truly Devious series.

To read the full review, visit NightsAndWeekends.com.

Yesterday, Today & Tomorrow (Series)

Produced by Phil Mariage

Most recent piece in this series:

Female Sex Drive

From Phil Mariage | Part of the Yesterday, Today & Tomorrow series | 51:26

Ytt-300x300_small

This program topic is Female Sex Drive, which follows the male version aired a month ago. Sarah Kellogg, KUAR's morning news program host is sitting in for Phil Mariage giving this an all female voice to this discussion. The guests are...UALR Associate Sociology and Gerontology professor, Dr. Rosalie Otters...from UAMS Dr. Chelsea Wakefield she is an Associate Professor and Director of the Couples Center at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences....and UALR Biology student Amber Atkinson. With this program we have both the male and female generational perspectives on Sex Drive.

 

 

Fugitive Waves (Series)

Produced by The Kitchen Sisters

Most recent piece in this series:

Burning Man — Archiving the Ephemeral

From The Kitchen Sisters | Part of the Fugitive Waves series | 18:58

Ks_fugitivewavessm_small

On the night of Summer Solstice 1986, Larry Harvey and Jerry James built and burned an eight-foot wooden figure on San Francisco's Baker Beach surrounded by a handful of friends. Burning Man was born. 
This weekend, the 34th annual Burning Man gathering begins to assemble on a vast dry lake bed in Nevada's Black Rock Desert, the nomadic ritual's home since 1990. An estimated 80,000 people will come.   
How do you archive an event when one of it's driving principles is "leave no trace?" Where The Burning Man is in fact burned? What is being kept and who is keeping it? The Kitchen Sisters take a journey into the archives of this legendary gathering to find out.

99% Invisible (Standard Length) (Series)

Produced by Roman Mars

Most recent piece in this series:

99% Invisible #170- Children of the Magenta (Standard 4:30 version)

From Roman Mars | Part of the 99% Invisible (Standard Length) series | 04:30

99invisible-logo-itunes-badge-_for_prx_small

On the evening of May 31, 2009, 216 passengers, three pilots, and nine flight attendants boarded an Airbus 330 in Rio de Janeiro. This flight, Air France 447, was headed across the Atlantic to Paris. The take-off was unremarkable. The plane reached a cruising altitude of 35,000 feet. The passengers read and watched movies and slept. Everything proceeded normally for several hours. Then, with no communication to the ground or air traffic control, flight 447 suddenly disappeared.

 

Days later, several bodies and some pieces of the plane were found floating in the Atlantic Ocean. But it would be two more years before most of the wreckage was recovered from the ocean’s depths. All 228 people on board had died. The cockpit voice recorder and the flight data recorders, however, were intact, and these recordings told a story about how Flight 447 ended up in the bottom of the Atlantic.

The story they told was was about what happened when the automated system flying the plane suddenly shut off, and the pilots were left surprised, confused, and ultimately unable to fly their own plane.

earlyautopilot2[Early Autopilot. Credit: Eric Long, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution]

The first so called “auto-pilot” was invented by the Sperry Corporation in 1912. It allowed the plane to fly straight and level without the pilot’s intervention. In the 1950s the autopilots improved, and could be programed to follow a route.

By the 1970s, even complex electrical systems and hydraulic systems were automated, and studies were showing that most accidents were caused not by mechanical error, but by human error. These findings prompted the French company Airbus to develop safer planes that used even more advanced automation.

Airbus set out to design what they hoped would be the safest plane yet—a plane that even the worst pilots could fly with ease. Bernard Ziegler, senior vice president for engineering at Airbus, famously said that he was building an airplane that even his concierge would be able to fly.

Airbus_A300_B2_Zero-G[One of the first Airbus planes for commercial use. Credit: Stahlkocher.]

Not only did Ziegler’s plane have auto-pilot, it also had what’s called a “fly-by-wire” system. Whereas autopilot just does what a pilot tells it to do, fly-by-wire is a computer-based control system that can interpret what the pilot wants to do, and then execute the command smoothly and safely. For example, if the pilot pulls back on his or her control stick, the fly-by-wire system will understand that the pilot wants to pitch the plane up, and then will do it at the just the right angle and rate.

Importantly, the fly-by-wire system will also protect the plane from getting into an “aerodynamic stall.” In a plane, stalling can happen when the nose of the plane is pitched up at too steep an angle. This can cause the plane to lose “lift” and start to descend.

stall[From top: a plane in normal flight; a plane in a stall. Credit: Wikipedia Commons.]

Stalling in a plane can be dangerous, but fly-by-wire automation makes it impossible to do. As long as it’s on.

Unlike autopilot, the “fly-by-wire” system cannot be turned on and off by the pilot. However, it can turn itself off. And that’s exactly what it did on May 31, 2009, as Air France Flight 447 made its transatlantic flight.

planned route[The dotted line begins where Flight 447’s last contact with the control tower was made. Credit: Mysid]

When a pressure probe on the outside of the plane iced over, the automation could no longer tell how fast the plane was going, and the autopilot disengaged. The “fly-by-wire” system also switched into a mode in which it was no longer offering protections against aerodynamic stall. When the autopilot disengaged, the co-pilot in the right seat put his hand on the control stick—a little joy stick like thing to his right—and pulled it back, pitching the nose of the plane up.

This action caused the plane to go into a stall, and yet, even as the stall warning sounded, none of the pilots could figure out what was happening to them. If they’d realized they were in a stall, the fix would have been clear. “The recovery would have required them to put the nose down, get it below the horizon, regain a flying speed and then pull out of the ensuing dive,” says William Langewiesche, a journalist and former pilot who wrote about the crash of Flight 447 for Vanity Fair. 

The pilots, however, never tried to recover, because they never seemed to realize they were in a stall.  Four minutes and twenty seconds after the incident began, the plane pancaked into the Atlantic, instantly killing all 228 people on board.

 

There are various factors that contributed to the crash of flight 447. Some people point to the fact that the airbus control sticks do not move in unison, so the pilot in the left seat would not have felt the pilot in the right seat pull back on his stick, the maneuver that ultimately pitched the plane into a dangerous angle. But even if you concede this potential design flaw, it still begs the question, how could the pilots have a computer yelling ‘stall’ at them, and not realize they were in a stall?

It’s clear that automation played a role in this accident, though there is some disagreement about what kind of role it played. Maybe it was a badly designed system that confused the pilots, or maybe years of depending on automation had left the pilots unprepared to take over the controls.

“For however much automation has helped the airline passenger by increasing safety it has had some negative consequences,” says Langewiesche. “In this case it’s quite clear that these pilots had had experience stripped away from them for years.” The Captain of the Air France flight had logged 346 hours of flying over the past six months. But within those six months, there were only about four hours in which he was actually in control of an airplane—just the take-offs and landings. The rest of the time, auto-pilot was flying the plane. Langewiesche believes this lack experience left the pilots unprepared to do their jobs.

Voo_Air_France_447-2006-06-14[Pieces of the wreckage of Flight 447. Credit: Roberto Maltchik]

Complex and confusing automated systems may also have contributed to the crash. When one of the co-pilots hauled back on his stick, he pitched the plane into an angle that eventually caused the stall. But it’s possible that he didn’t understand that he was now flying in a different mode, one which would not regulate and smooth out his movements. This confusion about what how the fly-by-wire system responds in different modes is referred to, aptly, as “mode confusion,”  and it has come up in other accidents.

“A lot of what’s happening is hidden from view from the pilots,” says Langewiesche. “It’s buried. When the airplane starts doing something that is unexpected and the pilot says ‘hey, what’s it doing now?’ — that’s a very very standard comment in cockpits today.'”

Langewiesche isn’t the only person to point out that ‘What’s it doing now?’ is a commonly heard question in the cockpit.

In 1997,  American Airlines captain Warren Van Der Burgh said that the industry has turned pilots into “Children of the Magenta” who are too dependent on the guiding magenta-colored lines on their screens.

William Langewiesche agrees:

“We appear to be locked into a cycle in which automation begets the erosion of skills or the lack of skills in the first place and this then begets more automation.”

However potentially dangerous it may be to rely too heavily on automation, no one is advocating getting rid of it entirely. It’s agreed upon across the board that automation has made airline travel safer. The accident rate for air travel is very low: about 2.8 accidents for every one million departures. (Airbus planes, by the way, are no more or less safe than their main rival, Boeing.)

Langewiesche thinks that we are ultimately heading toward pilotless planes. And by the time that happens, the automation will be so good and so reliable that humans, with all of their fallibility, will really just be in the way.

Screen Shot 2015-06-22 at 11.54.13 AM[The magenta guiding lines of automation, from a 1997 presentation by pilot Warren Van Der Burgh.]

Producer Katie Mingle spoke with William Langewiesche, a former pilot who wrote an article in Vanity Fair about this flight, as well as Nadine Sarter, a systems engineer at the University of Michigan. This episode also features the voice of Captain Warren Van Der Burgh.

Paul Messing's Audio Producer's Grab Bag (Series)

Produced by Paul Messing

Most recent piece in this series:

MiMoSHKA!

From Paul Messing | Part of the Paul Messing's Audio Producer's Grab Bag series | 01:24

Playing
MiMoSHKA!
From
Paul Messing

Russian_comedy_small A famous Russian comedy duo at their last performance, featuring their famous on-stage shenanigans in front of an amused audience. Is it real?

The Sundilla Radio Hour (Series)

Produced by Sundilla

Most recent piece in this series:

The Sundilla Radio Hour #353

From Sundilla | Part of the The Sundilla Radio Hour series | 59:00

Dsc_0704-150x150_medium_small The Sundilla Radio Hour for the week of 01/20/2020.

Rockin' in the Days of Confusion (Series)

Produced by Stephen R Webb

Most recent piece in this series:

DC 2004

From Stephen R Webb | Part of the Rockin' in the Days of Confusion series | 59:00

Playing
DC 2004
From
Stephen R Webb

Captain_beyond_small This week is yet another excursion into the world of early 1970s free-form rock radio, with a dozen (mostly album) tracks from a dozen artists. See http://thehermitrambles.blogspot.com/ for complete playlist.

A Moment of Science (Series)

Produced by WFIU

Most recent piece in this series:

AMOS 20.19: How the Monarch Got Its Poison, 1/27/2020

From WFIU | Part of the A Moment of Science series | 02:00

Mos-fullcolor-rgb-stacked_small How the Monarch Got Its Poison

Ken Rudin's Political Junkie (Series)

Produced by Ken Rudin's Political Junkie

Most recent piece in this series:

312: Political Junkie Episode #312, 1/24/2020

From Ken Rudin's Political Junkie | Part of the Ken Rudin's Political Junkie series | 53:58

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The skirmish over whether a woman can beat President Trump in November that we saw in last week's Democratic debate has not abated.  It's an argument that goes beyond whatever was said between Elizabeth Warren and Bernie Sanders.  But party unity didn't get a shot in the arm by the recent reminder from Hillary Clinton that she has yet to forgive Sanders for what he did in 2016.  Debbie Walsh of Rutgers University tries to put things in perspective.

 
The Supreme Court is taking up the issue of "faithless electors" -- those presidential electors who are pledged to vote for the candidate that wins their state but who sometimes votes for whichever candidate he or she decides upon.  Five Clinton and two Trump electors voted for someone else in 2016, but few people paid any notice because Trump's electoral college lead over Clinton was substantial.  Amy Howe, an expert on the Court, talks about the cases before the Justices and the possible consequences should these electors alter the result of a presidential election.

 
And we talk to one such "faithless elector" -- Mike Padden of Washington State who, in 1976, ignored his pledge to vote for President Gerald Ford (who carried Washington that year) and instead voted for Ronald Reagan.

Imaginary Worlds (Series)

Produced by Eric Molinsky

Most recent piece in this series:

Queen of Tarot

From Eric Molinsky | Part of the Imaginary Worlds series | 24:02

Pamela_colman_smith_circa_1912_small

When it comes to tarot cards, there is an artistry to designing a world of emperors, fools, priestesses, hermits and other iconic figures. But few people know about the woman who illustrated the best selling deck of all time – Pamela Colman Smith. Professor Elizabeth Foley O’Connor and author Susan Wands explain why Pamela Colman Smith was uniquely suited to design tarot cards that stimulate our intuition and our imagination – and how the figures on the Rider-Waite (a.k.a. Smith-Waite) deck are based on a real troupe of famous actors.